The Constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution in the world. It is a result of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days of hard work of constitution makers who invested all their rational and intellectual powers to form a basic document necessary for the spirit of Republic of India. Indian Constitution is “Of the People, For the People and By the People.”
A well written document providing Executive, Judiciary and Legislative superpowers came into existence on November 26, 1949. India celebrates its Republic day on January 26, since 1950, when the Constitution of India came into effect. Although various features of our constitution are borrowed from many existing constitutions, more than half of its features are solely taken from the Government of India Act 1935 only.
Architect Of Indian Constitution
Before moving forward to the features of Indian Constitution, it’s important to know about the eminent personalities behind the stage who were constantly involved in the process. So the constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly of India whose first president was Dr Sachidanand Sinha. Later the first President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad became its President while Dr. BR Ambedkar was the Chairman of drafting committee. Dr Ambedkar is known as the chief architect of Constitution of India.
The Original Form of Indian Constitution
The original document which was adopted in 1950, comprised 395 articles which were divided into 22 parts and 8 scheduled. Now the number of articles has been extended to 470 with 104 amendments till 2022 so far. It has now 25 parts and 12 schedules.
Sources Of Indian Constitution
While most of the part of Indian Constitution resembles the Government of India Act 1935, various effective features of it have been taken from almost every country in the world. Dr BR Ambedkar says about it with immense proud that, “The Constitution of India has been framed after ransacking all the known constitution in the world.”
When we go into detail, we find that the structural part is taken from the 1935 act, which frames the base of Federal system, Judiciary, Governors, Public Service Commission and emergency provisions etc. While the Philosophical part that talks about fundamental rights and DPSPs is borrowed from the constitution of America and Russia respectively and the political powers are largely derived from the British Constitution. Now here we are presenting a clear picture of sources of Indian constitution in detail.
Government of India Act 1935
- Federal Scheme.
- Office of Governor.
- Public Service Commissions.
- Emergency provisions and administrative details.
- Parliamentary Government.
- Rule of Law.
- Legislative Procedures.
- Single citizenship.
- Cabinet system, prerogative writs.
- Parliamentary privileges.
- Fundamental Rights.
- Independence of Judiciary.
- Removal of Supreme Court and High Court Judges.
- Impeachment of President.
- Directive principles of state policies.
- Election of President.
- Nomination of members of Rajya Sabha.
- Canadian Constitution
- Federation with a strong centre.
- Appointments of state governors by the centre.
- Joint sitting of two houses of parliament,
- Concurrent list.
- Suspension of Fundamental rights during emergency.
- Russian Constitution
- Fundamental duties and idea of justice.
- Republic of ideals of equality, liberty, fraternity in the Preamble.
- South African
- Procedure of amendments of the constitution.
- it provides the procedure established by the law.