Jawaharlal Nehru: Former Prime Minister of India, Early Life, Freedom Struggle, Books and Facts For UPSC

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, one amongst the architects of Modern India, was one of the prominent faces of India’s freedom struggle. This intellectual but soft hearted Kashmiri Pandit was famous among children as their dear Chacha Nehru.

Born and brought up in Allahabad, the longest serving First Prime Minister of Independent India, devoted his whole life to the service of Nation. This son of soil bid us goodbye on 27 May 1964. Today on the occasion of his Death anniversary let’s remember him by knowing about his life and struggle for freedom from Britishers.

The Death Anniversary Of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

Pandit Nehru’s Early Life

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad (today’s Prayagraj) in a Kashmiri Pandit family. His father was Pandit Motilal Nehru and mother was Swarup rani. He had two sisters, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit, the first female President of the United Nations General Assembly, and Krishna Hutheesing, a noted Writer. Pandit Nehru got married in 1916, to Kamla Kaul and had a daughter, who is known as the Iron lady of India Indira Gandhi.

Pandit Nehru, acquired his degree in Natural Science from Trinity college, Cambridge University in 1910. In 1912, he came back from London as a Barrister and started practicing at Allahabad high court. Deeply moved by Mahatma Gandhi’s Ideology of fighting British imperialism, he became a part of India’s freedom movement. From here, it starts the sequence of events that shows the true quality of the future’s leader who is known as the people’s prime minister.

Nehru’s Journey of Freedom Struggle

There was a great impact of Mahatma Gandhi on Pt. Nehru’s life who met him for the first time in 1916. Inspired by his charisma, Nehru decided to be a part of the Nation’s freedom struggle. Joining the Indian National Congress in 1919, was just the beginning of his fight against British emperors.

During the 1920s the civil disobedience movement was at its peak. Pt. Nehru was also imprisoned twice during 1920-22. He became the general secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. When the whole Nation was protesting against the report of the Simon Commission in 1928, he was lathi charged amongst other people.

Nehru’s Idea of Complete Independence

His pivotal role in India’s independence can be understood when he founded the ‘Independence of India league’. The man of vision was the first one to give the idea of Complete Independence. In 1929, he was elected as the president of Lahore session of INC and hoisted the Indian flag in presence of a huge public gathering. His autobiography, “Towards Freedom” was written in Almora Jail in 1935, when he was in exile.

Pandit Nehru in Quit India Movement

On October 31, 1940 he was arrested for protesting against forceful participation of India in world war 2 and released along with other leaders December 1941.

The “Quit India Movement” was initiated on the call of Gandhi ji on August 7, 1942 with a resolution at the All India Congress committee’s Bombay session. On the very next day 8 August, various Congress leaders got arrested and they were taken to Ahmednagar fort. Being his last and longest detention, Jawaharlal Nehru was finally released in 1945.

Due to his involvement in rigorous freedom movements like non- cooperation, civil disobedience, protest of Simon Commission, Namak satyagrah, quit India etc total 9 times he was arrested and sent to jail.

Leadership Of Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru, who was a chosen leader by Mahatma Gandhi, intellectual, scholar and a foreign returned Barrister, who had a very visionary perspective for independent India. The longest serving Prime Minister of India, during his tenure from August 15, 1947 to 1964, implemented various socio- economic reforms, emphasized on building of learning institutions and committed India towards industrialization by focusing on International Relations, Science and Technology, economic activities.

People’s Prime Minister

He was known as People’s Prime Minister. According to his biographer Sarvpalli Gopal, “receiving throughout the years of his Prime ministership, about 2000 letters everyday, Nehru used to spend 4 to 5 hours every night dictating replies and their were the years when the Prime Minister was putting in 20 hours per day with hardly even breakfast as a private meal” this much was his commitment.

The architect of modern India, died due to Sudden heart attack on May 27, 1964. After 2 years of his death his daughter Indira Gandhi took the charge of Prime Minister of India. She was the 2nd largest serving PM after her father, from 1966 to 1977 and again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984.

Nehru Ji’s role along with Sardar Patel, in forming India a sovereign democratic and secular nation can’t be denied at any cost.

Some Facts on Pandit Nehru

Here we are presenting some quick facts from an examination point of view.
“Towards freedom” is an autobiography by Jawaharlal during his period in Almora Jail in 1935.

  • During the time of the cold war he adopted the policy of “positive neutrality”.
  • The discovery of India, Glimpses of world history, Towards freedom and letters from a father to his daughter are some of the notable works written by Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • From 1950-55 he was nominated 11 times for the Nobel Peace Prize but couldn’t get one.
  • The great admirer of Annie Beasant joined the Home Rule League in 1916.
  • Pt. Nehru also served as Foreign Minister during the Kashmir crisis in October 1947.
  • He was a signatory of the Panchsheel agreement between India and China that was to serve as the five guiding principles of the relationship between these two Nations.
  • The First general election of India was held in 1952, in which about 175 million people voted for the first time.
  • In 1954, the Bhakra Nangal multipurpose river project on Sutlej river was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru which is considered as India’s first and one of the biggest dams in the world.

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